The Russian Woodpeckers (Steel Yard, Steel Work, Duga Radars, & Krug Ionospheric Probes)

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Ionospheric Heater powered by Chernobyl reactor. Rendered useless after meltdown.
The Russian Woodpecker, Chernobyl Meltdown, and Ionospheric Heating Over the USA (1983-1986)

‘Woodpecker’ Duga Radar Array, Chenobyl, Ukraine
РЛС Дуга-1 Чернобыль-2
(Radar arch-1 Chernobyl-2)

The Soviets had been working on early warning radars for their anti-ballistic missile systems through the 1960s, but most of these had been line-of-sight systems that were useful for raid analysis and interception only. None of these systems had the capability to provide early-warning of a launch, which would give the defenses time to study the attack and plan a response. At the time the Soviet early-warning satellite network was not well developed, so work started on over-the-horizon radar systems for this associated role in the late 1960s.

The first experimental system, Duga-1, was built outside Mykolaiv in the Ukraine, successfully detecting rocket launches from Baikonur Cosmodrome at 2,500 kilometers. This was followed by the prototype Duga-2, built on the same site, which was able to track launches from the far east and submarines in the Pacific Ocean as the missiles flew towards Novaya Zemlya. Both of these radars were aimed east and were fairly low power, but with the concept proven work began on an operational system. The new Duga-3 systems used a transmitter and receiver separated by about 60 km. Source: Wikipedia

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